Aeration: Introducing air into milk to create foam.
Bloom: Prewetting the coffee grounds to release excess gas and to aid the brewing process.
Brew ratio: The relationship between the weight of ground coffee and the volume of water used for brewing, typically reflected in grams per 6 fluid ounces in a standard U.S. cup.
Brew time: the length of time that water is in contact with ground coffee during brewing.
Dialing-in: The trade term for adjusting the espresso grinder to produce coarser or finer grinds until the extraction of the shot is correct and the coffee tastes good.
Extraction: The amount of flavor removed from the coffee grounds during the brewing process
Grind size: The size of ground coffee particles adjusted for proper extraction during brewing
Over-extracted: When too much flavor has been removed from the coffee grounds, including the undesirable ones, resulting in a bitter and unpleasant-tasting coffee.
Portafilter: The handle that holds the basket of all espresso machines.
Steaming: Heating milk while simultaneously injecting air into the milk’s protein strands to expand the milk.
Turbulence: A mixing action created as water passes through and over the coffee grounds allowing for even and adequate extraction from the coffee grounds.
Under-extracted: When too little desirable flavor has been removed from the coffee grounds, resulting in a sour and weak-tasting coffee.
AeroPress: A syringe-like device that makes a single cup of coffee using properties of both immersion and pressure brewing.
Chemex: An hour-glass shaped carafe that holds the filter in place and doubles as the coffee brewer and vessel, similar to a pour-over but with increased grind size and brew time.
Cold Brew: A form of extracting coffee from ground coffee using cold or ambient water temperatures.
Nitro Cold Brew: The process of kegging cold brew and adding exogenous nitrogen to the keg and shaking the combination of cold brew and nitrogen until the two have been bound together. Creating a bready taste and mouthfeel with a foamy head.
Drip coffee: A method of coffee brewing in which water passes through coffee grounds and a filter with the help of gravity.
French Press: A method of immersion brewing in which after the coffee grounds are steeped in water for a specific amount of time, a mesh filter is plunged through the coffee to separate the grounds from the beverage.
Immersion brewing: A category of brewing methods that involve steeping coffee grounds in water for a set amount of time.
Pressure brewing: A category of brewing methods that use pressure to force water through the coffee grounds to extract flavor.
Pour over: A manual method of making drip coffee using a cone-shaped dripper, a filter, and a kettle to pour water over the coffee grounds.
Tamping: Technique used in espresso brewing to pack down the ground coffee particles to for a flat tight bed.